Electromagnetic waves are produced whenever charged particles are accelerated, and these waves can subsequently interact with any charged particles. Living systems, including the human body are composed of charged and polar molecules that use their electromagnetic properties to facilitate function. Indeed without these intrinsic natural electromagnetic forces, life could not exist. The effects of EMR upon biological systems (and also to many other chemical systems, under standard conditions) depend upon the radiation’s properties such as power, intensity, modulation, waveform, and polarisation, exposiometry (dosing characteristics, including cumulative dose), properties of the tissues being exposed, health presence or absence of synergistic toxins, and status of the organism being exposed. Therefore it is impossible to predict biological interaction in detail in the complex situations of real life, and it is clear that some individuals will be more vulnerable than others to negative health effects. Equally, some species are likely to be more vulnerable than others, and EMR can interact with all species as we would expect. Thank you to Dr. Isaac Jamieson Individual Vulnerability in Humans: Age, gender, underlying genetics, electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) and co-morbidity (concurrent illness) all affect the vulnerability of an individual. Additionally pregnant females, and their foetuses are especially vulnerable. There is evidence that exposures can also affect subsequent generations. Author of page Dr. Erica Mallery-Blythe, see credits for graphics owners. If you wish to use or discuss any content from this site, please contact the relevant author / owner either directly or via ‘contact’ above. A link to the references for each section will also be coming soon.